Receptionist 303-986-4197
M – F • 8:30am – 5:00pm

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Therapists In Denver And Nearby Specializing In Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

This is the therapy of “attitudes”. Its underlying assumption is that negative emotions and behavior are influenced to a significant degree by one’s own thoughts…and that by changing self-destructive ideation, one can become much less unhappy.

Mara Maeglin LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

Hi, I’m Mara Maeglin. I specialize in anxiety, life transitions, communication in relationships, depression, self-esteem, and body...

Tracy Bloom LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I can understand how hard it is to find a therapist that can relate and really understand. I have been there, and this is what lead me...

Nicole Woodman LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Nicole is a solution focused therapist. Nicole believes in working together to resolve the challenges you may face in your life. Nicole...

Vicki Quarles CGC / LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

Vicki only works with adults age 26 and older.

I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and Certified Grief Counselor who has been practicing since 2003.  I see only individual adults,...

Rick Carter LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Rick is only accepting clients 17 years old and over.

Available on 5/25/2022 at 12:00 PM. Book appointment.

Rick Carter is a Licensed Professional Counselor with over 25 years  experience in the mental health field in counseling.  He received...

Gabrielle May-Shinagle LMFT

- Offers sessions only online

Available on 5/25/2022 at 9:00 AM. Book appointment.

Gabrielle May-Shinagle, LMFT (#0001458), LAC (#0000716), AAMFT-Approved Supervisor, RPT-S, has a Master’s Degree in Marriage and...

Jeremy Thomas LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Available on 5/26/2022 at 1:00 PM. Book appointment.

I know how difficult it is to find a therapist, so thank you for taking the time to read this. My professional career spans 25 years...

Christa Walker LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Available on 5/25/2022 at 2:00 PM. Book appointment.

Christa has always had a desire to come alongside people in their journeys of emotional and mental well-being, and in 2019 she graduated...

Kelsey Schwartz LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

Kelsey is only accepting adult clients at this time.

Available on 5/25/2022 at 11:30 AM. Book appointment.

Tired, stressed, and anxious. Do these words describe you? Are you struggling to deal with your current life situation, stuck in the...

Patricia Ryan-Johnson LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

Available on 5/25/2022 at 1:00 PM. Book appointment.

Welcome. I know that it takes courage to reach out for support, so, thank you for taking the first step to a more fulfilled and happier...

Dave Bakulski LAC / LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Available on 5/27/2022 at 4:00 PM. Book appointment.

Dave Bakulski is a Lakewood therapist who hails from Golden and currently has a practice location in Lakewood, Colorado. His office location...

Morgan Governale LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Available on 5/25/2022 at 10:00 AM. Book appointment.

There are many ups and downs that life brings, and we all need support in processing our emotions and experiences. I offer a highly individualized...

Kara Johnson LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Available on 5/25/2022 at 10:00 AM. Book appointment.

Navigating the world can be murky, difficult and anxiety inducing. Often, there isn’t a clear path. Clients come to me when they are...

Caitlyn Concklin LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Available on 5/26/2022 at 9:00 AM. Book appointment.

I understand that seeking help can be hard, and getting to this very point may have felt like a leap of faith. I am here to help the...

Anna Rocio Brown CAC III / LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Anna is exclusively providing online therapy sessions and is only accepting new patients 18 years old and over.

Available on 5/26/2022 at 3:00 PM. Book appointment.

Anna Rocio Brown is licensed professional counselor holding certification in trauma and dual diagnosis.  Anna is bilingual in Spanish...

Rebecca Sacks LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Available on 5/26/2022 at 11:00 AM. Book appointment.

Rebecca Sacks, Licensed Professional Counselor, holds a master’s degree from Regis University. Her clinical background is in mental...

Nancy A. Gunzner LAC / LMFT

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Available on 5/26/2022 at 5:00 PM. Book appointment.

I am a native born in Colorado, have been married for 25+ years, have two adult male children, am located in Wheat Ridge, and am bilingual...

Keith Long LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Keith only sees clients over 16 years old.

Available on 5/27/2022 at 9:30 AM. Book appointment.

Therapist in Aurora, Keith Long is licensed in Colorado as an LPC (Licensed Professional Counselor). He has a Master of Arts Degree in...

Kevin Barr LMFT

- Offers sessions only online

“Without awareness we are not truly alive” – James Bugental Hello! My name is Kevin Barr. I’ve been practicing therapy for...

Lisa Dorner-Zupancic LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Available on 5/31/2022 at 1:00 PM. Book appointment.

As a therapist practicing in Colorado Springs, Lisa Dorner-Zupancic is a highly experienced professional therapist serving adults, children,...

Cecilia Kim LMFT

- Offers sessions only online

Available on 6/1/2022 at 1:00 PM. Book appointment.

My goal is to create a safe, non-judgmental therapeutic environment where individuals and families have the opportunity to explore their...

Shannon Hicks LPC / MA / NCC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Available on 6/2/2022 at 10:00 AM. Book appointment.

Shannon is a seasoned therapist who graduated in 2007 from Denver Seminary. Shannon has a deep passion for restoring individuals, couples...

Phil Stone LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Available on 6/2/2022 at 10:00 AM. Book appointment.

Phil Stone, therapist in Littleton, Colorado, has been a therapist for 20 years serving in a variety of settings: Inpatient, Residential,...

Becky Guido LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Available on 6/2/2022 at 1:30 PM. Book appointment.

Becky Guido is a licensed professional counselor (LPC) based in Denver, CO. She started her career in mental health in 2006 when she...

Kim Hunt LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Available on 6/3/2022 at 8:00 AM. Book appointment.

I have been doing counseling for the past 16 years and love what I do. I enjoy helping people figure out the issues getting in their...

Karen Hauser LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Karen only sees adults over 18 years old.

Available on 6/6/2022 at 2:00 PM. Book appointment.

Karen Hauser is a licensed Denver therapist and clinical social worker (LCSW). She is a highly valued, clinical therapist with Westside...

Cecilia Kosak LMFT / MA

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Cecilia is a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist and Registered Art Therapist.  She is a Denver native and has been a practicing...

Jeff Nelson LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

"Jeff's only seeing clients 18 years old and above for online sessions."

Available on 6/23/2022 at 1:30 PM. Book appointment.

Denver therapist, Jeff Nelson, has been with Westside Behavioral for many years and is a highly experienced, empathetic, and competent...

Jaurene Blacklock CAC III / LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Available on 7/5/2022 at 6:00 AM. Book appointment.

Aurora therapist, Jaurene Blacklock, LPC, CACIII, is a veteran therapist who sees adults, children, families, couples, and adolescents....

Christy Laracuente LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I have been working with children, adolescent and adult individuals for over 25 years in a variety of settings. My work focuses on helping...

Rich Thomas LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Rich is only accepting clients 18 years old and over.

I work with ages 18 and up. During therapy, you’ll feel comforted by my calm and caring presence, empathy, unconditional positive regard,...

Christina Pacheco LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Are you feeling stressed, overwhelmed, exhausted, or even hopeless? Do you wonder if things will ever get better? Whether you are experiencing...

Lisa Taggart LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I am a strength-based therapist, supporting clients in self-discovery and self-determination within the relevant cultural contexts of...

Bonnie Mucklow CAC III / LMFT / LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Bonnie does not find online therapy suitable for children ages 9 and under.

Greenwood Village therapist, Bonnie Mucklow, is a licensed marriage and family therapist (LMFT), licensed professional counselor (LPC)...

Stephanie Berliant LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

Attention is one of the most powerful gifts we can give. This philosophy drives my practice. I strive to listen well, to understand you,...

Rebecca Hickman LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and have been practicing in the mental health and addiction field since 2006.  I am passionate...

Kristina Normann LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I am a licensed clinical social worker and addictions counselor with nine years of experience working in the field of mental health and...

Nick Mancini LMFT / LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Cherry Creek Therapist in Denver, Nick Mancini, LPC, LMFT, specializes in cognitive behavioral therapy among many other interventions....

Naomi Greenstone LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

Not living the life you envisioned? If you’ve been dreaming about how your life might look different or how you might wake up feeling...

Richard Rybicki LCSW / MSW

- Offers sessions only online

Richard Rybicki, MSW, LCSW has 40 years of professional clinical experience in a variety of settings; he prefers private practice. FROM...

Cameron James LCSW

-

Cameron James is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who has worked with children and adolescents in nearly every level of care across...

Erik Petersen LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I am a licensed professional counselor in the State of Colorado and have been working in the mental health field for over 19 years. I...

Jeanette Van Akkeren LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Hello! I’m a licensed professional counselor in Arvada, CO with over a decade of experience in the mental health field. I primarily...

Adriane Pippins LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Adriane only sees adults over 18 years old.

Adriane has a Master’s Degree in Social Work from Texas State University and started working with at-risk children in 2006. Over the...

Jill Alexander LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

J.Alexander Counseling was founded on the ideals of compassion, safety, empathy, empowerment, trust, and communication. Together, we...

Tamara Graff LMFT

- Offers sessions only online

Chances are you’re looking for a therapist because things are not going well. Maybe you’ve recently experienced a loss, are...

Ann Norris LCSW / MSW

- Offers sessions only online

In my Boulder therapy practice, I am dedicated to providing a supportive, safe environment for clients to work on their own areas of...

Jamie Pledger LPC

- Offers sessions only online

I believe that the power of therapy lies in the process – in uncovering histories, identifying patterns, and finding new perspectives....

Karen Mikolic Ph.D.

- Offers sessions only online

Karen Mikolic, Ph.D. is a psychologist who is Board Certified in Neuropsychology and licensed in Colorado, Florida, and California. Dr....

Sarah Severino LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

My name is Sarah Severino, LPC. I have been providing therapeutic services for the past 12 years in the Denver-metro area and the East...

Ruby Brayman LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Hello! I’m Ruby. I am a licensed clinical social worker, but I am more often known as your biggest cheer leader, thought untangler,...

Sue Crawford LPC

- Offers sessions only online

I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and trauma specialist. I have worked with adults, children, teens and families in community, school...

Carly Boeselt LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Carly does not specialize in substance abuse issues.

Life often throws us things that we don’t expect, or never think we will have to deal with. Sometimes, it’s more of a life...

Theresa Palermo LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

Theresa Palermo earned her Bachelors Degree from the University of Maryland in College Park in 1988. Afterwards, she spent several years...

Tracey Andrews LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

"Gender identity clients are limited to children and adolescents."

Child and Adolescent Therapist, Tracey Andrews, LCSW, also specializes in seeing adults suffering from problems such as depression, LGBT...

Ellie Bergmann LAC / LCSW / MSW

- Offers sessions only online

Ellie does not have evening availability for new clients at the moment.

Ellie Bergmann is a licensed clinical social worker (LCSW) and Licensed Addictions Counselor (LAC) who brings over 10 years of experience...

Matthew McCleary LPC

- Offers sessions only in-person

Hello! I am a licensed professional counselor who works with adolescents and adults at my office in Aurora, CO. I have extensive experience...

Emily Cunningham LCSW / MSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Emily is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who has worked with teens and adults since 2012. Emily has worked in a variety of settings...

Lisa Volk LMFT / MS

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I have experience working with families, (blended, or otherwise), with partial families (say, an adult child & parents, or siblings,...

Kimberly Nuffer LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Kimberly directly schedules her in-person appointments. She is accepting a limited number of adolescent clients which must be directly scheduled with her.

Tell me, what is it you plan to do with your one wild and precious life? – Mary Oliver, A Summer Day. Trying to figure out your...

Erica Krakovitz CAC III / Ph.D.

- Offers sessions only online

Our greatest accomplishments involve conquering our fears and insecurities. Sometimes fear and shame keep us stuck and prevent us from...

Rhiana Holmes LAC / LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, I have decided to make my practice permanently virtual. I have found that this accomplishes my top priority...

Jordan Langdon LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

I love my work as a therapist and am grateful for the opportunity to help people make positive changes in their lives and to move towards...

Susie Martinez LPC / MA

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I am committed to providing compassionate and individualized psychotherapy in a warm, safe and accepting environment. In our work together...

Christopher DuVernay LPC / MA

- Offers sessions only online

Crux Counseling, my private practice since 2011, has grown out of many years of assessing the unique needs expressed by my clients, their...

Marly Kravetz LPC / MA

- Offers sessions only online

Marly sees Adults only (and young adults 21+ years of age)

Marly’s office is in Broomfield, CO, where she sees clients with ages ranging from 3 months to 93 years old. She has worked in community,...

Janet Borelli LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Youngest child Janet will see is 4 years old.

Are you under stress? Overwhelmed? Do you feel unable to move ahead in your life? would you like to feel more effective with your children...

Chloe Chatenever LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Chloe Chatenever is a licensed professional counselor located in Cherry Creek/Denver. She has worked with clients in a variety of different...

Ashley Charbonneau LAC / LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

Ashley is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and Licensed Addiction Counselor, specializing in substance abuse, healthy relationships,...

Brianna Roggow LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

I believe every child, teen and family is unique. With this comes unique challenges that you and your child may be experiencing. From...

Deborah Neisen MSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Hello! I look forward to getting to know you and hope that my bio below will help you get to know me as well. I received a Bachelor of...

Michael Gyorffy LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

Hello! I have been a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) since 2007 and have been working in the mental health field for over 20 years....

Sarah Senst LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

These can be challenging times causing anxiety and depression. I’m offering counseling via a secure video platform. I can often...

Kristy Davis CAC III / LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Kristy no longer provides EMDR.

Therapist in Cherry Creek, Kristy Davis is a licensed clinical social worker and a certified addiction counselor (CAC III). She provides...

Gretchen Flores LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Gretchen is not accepting new male clients at this time.

I am a psychotherapist who specializes in women’s issues. With 20 years of experience in the field of counseling, I utilize my...

Christopher Marhevka LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Hello! My name is Chris Marhevka (pronouns:he/him). I am a licensed clinical social worker with 7+ years of field experience in mental...

Sarah Deneroff LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

Sarah prefers to work with children, teens, and young adults.

Sarah Deneroff is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who has been practicing in the social work field with adults, adolescents, children,...

Janet Coutts CAC III / LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Therapist in Wheat Ridge, Janet Coutts, provides EMDR and other forms of therapy for depression, addictions, PTSD, anxiety, and many...

Tye Kemp LPC

- Offers sessions only online

The experience of life can be dark at times, but it is my sincere belief that with positive intention, dedicated effort, and genuine...

Mayde Jackson LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Racial trauma, adjusting to Covid-19, school stress, work life balance, self-esteem, and relationships, among other issues are difficult...

Andre’a Kirkland LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Perhaps you are here in Colorado surrounded by beauty and a vibrant community that is always seeking the next best thing. It can be an...

Sandy Naatz LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Sandy prefers teletherapy sessions, but can be available for in-person sessions after discussing the client's needs.

I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with over 25 years of professional experience including a variety of experiences in counseling,...

Wendy Klein LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I am a strong advocate of mental health and believe that the state of mental health is on a continuum. Just like physical health needs...

Sarah Stormont MSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Sarah only sees adults over 18 years old.

Has your life not been as fulfilling lately or have you been struggling with making healthy changes? I am on your team to support and...

Andrea Lockhart Ph.D.

- Offers sessions only online

I am an actively engaged therapist and work collaboratively with you to find a pathway through your distress to get you to the place...

Rachel LaMorte LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I utilize a compassionate approach to counseling while integrating humor, empowerment, and challenging questions to assist you with developing...

Kristin Werner Ph.D.

- Offers sessions in-person and online

My approach includes blending Eastern and Western somatic modalities with cognitive and transpersonal psychology to bring awareness to...

Aubrey Adain LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

First, I want to commend you for seeking change and opportunity for your own life or as a support for your child. Accepting the possibility...

Kasandra Barr LMFT

- Offers sessions only online

Kasandra is only accepting clients 19 years old and over.

Hi, I’m Kasandra Barr (She/Her/Hers)! I have been practicing therapy for almost 10 years. I earned my Masters degree in Counseling...

Lynne McRae Psy.D.

- Offers sessions only online

Lynne does not provide online therapy for adolescents and is only seeing adults at this time.

My name is Dr. Lynne McRae, and I am a Licensed Clinical Psychologist, Certified Clinical Anxiety Treatment Professional, Certified Community...

Laurie Tonelli Ph.D.

- Offers sessions in-person and online

As a licensed psychologist, I specialize in individual therapy, couples counseling, and family therapy. I received my Ph.D. in Counseling...

Traci Rock LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Exceptional Lakewood therapy is provided by Traci Rock, LCSW. She is a veteran therapist with special interest in children and families....

Laura Shipman CAC II / LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Therapist in Lakewood, Laura Shipman, LCSW, CACII, brings an impressive degree of skills and experience to Westside Behavioral Care....

Molly Jaques LPC / MA

- Offers sessions only online

Molly is not accepting new male clients over 18 years old and only sees child clients 8 years and older.

Molly Jaques is a LPC or Licensed Professional Counselor. She has a BA in Psychology and a Master’s of Counseling from Regis University,...

Susan Monahan LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Susan Monahan is licensed therapist specializing in marriage therapy and couples counseling, child therapy, adolescent therapy, EMDR,...

Denae Arnold LAC / LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

If you’re looking for a genuine and authentic therapist who believes in swearing and humor in the therapeutic relationship than...

Christine Rufener Ph.D.

- Offers sessions only online

I am a clinical psychologist who has been providing psychotherapy and mental health services for more than 15 years in the US and, for...

Deirdre McGrath LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

Deirdre is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker. She obtained her Master’s degree at the University of Denver School of Social Work....

Hira Siddiqui LPC

- Offers sessions only online

I know the idea of therapy can be scary, overwhelming, and even intimidating. I absolutely understand and acknowledge the feeling of...

Victoria Tucker LAC / LPC / RN

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I am a Licensed Professional Counselor, (LPC) Licensed Addictions Counselor (LAC), and Licensed Registered Nurse (RN). I hold a Master’s...

Derrick Hinds LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Derrick Hinds is a Licensed Professional Counselor with a Master’s Degree in Community Counseling and a specialization in Clinical...

Lindsay Windels LAC / LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I think recovery from anything is one of the most beautiful and strong things a person can do. Recovery includes healing, mending, and...

Whitney Lentz LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Hi, I’m Whitney Lentz. I specialize in anxiety, depression, intuitive eating, body image, life transitions, communication in relationships,...

David Karl LPC

- Offers sessions only online

David Karl is a bilingual therapist in Denver able to see English and Spanish speaking patients. English Respecting your culture, empowering...

Mark Pennick Ph.D.

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Mark prefers teletherapy sessions, but can be available for in-person sessions after discussing the client's needs.

I began my working to help people in 2002, doing direct services for people with developmental disabilities. My career has included post-graduate...

Kristine Ocasek LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Kristine's availability for in-person visits is limited to Fridays.

Kristine is a licensed clinical social worker with over 15 years of experience. Born and raised outside of Chicago, Kristine has lived...

Marsha Visscher LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

About meI’ve lived in Colorado since 1997 and am married and have three children. I’ve had a longstanding curiosity about people...

Maya Zelio LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Maya only works with adult clients.

I received my Masters in Social Work from New York University and have been a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in New York, Illinois and...

Kelly Cote LAC / LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I am a Licensed Professional Counselor, Licensed Addictions Counselor, and EMDR trained therapist. I have been in the field for over...

Jonathan Minifie LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Jonathan C. Minifie has more than 20 years of experience working with adolescents. He has worked extensively with adolescents and individuals...

Heather Stone LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

Do you need someone to help ground you when life is spinning? I will guide you in figuring out what you really want so that you handle...

Rachel Mahoney LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Rachel Mahoney is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with over 22 years of experience in working with children, adolescents and adults...

Ben DeVoss LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Let’s face it, life is difficult. While many people eventually find ways to manage their problems one way or another, working with...

Megan Franklin LPC

- Offers sessions only online

My name is Megan Franklin and I am a Licensed Psychotherapist practicing in Littleton Colorado. I was born and raised in South Africa,...

Jamie Brennan LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Jamie prefers to work with adults 26 years of age and up.

“When we identify with our pain or what’s not right, everything becomes work. When we connect with our true Self, everything...

Emilie Graham LCSW

- Offers sessions only online

I am a relationship-based therapist and your needs shape and guide my approach to our work. As humans, we often internalize beliefs and...

Desmond Cohen LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

If you’re like me, then you’ve found that trying to be a happy, healthy, creative human in today’s world requires new skills...

Pamela Boaz LCSW

- Offers sessions in-person and online

I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker seeing children, teens and adults, as well as families.  I started Forward Family Therapy in...

Lindy Steece LPC

- Offers sessions only online

I am a believer in Dreams.  I believe Life is short and quality counts.  I am curious about your life:  how you handle situations,...

Stephanie Roberts CAC III / LPC

- Offers sessions only online

Stephanie Roberts is Masters Level Therapist specializing in individual, couples and family therapy, and maintains a private practice...

Rachel Rossi LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Rachel is a Licensed Professional Counselor who has been practicing therapy with children, teens, adults, couples, and families since...

Eric Hilborn LPC

- Offers sessions in-person and online

Eric Hilborn is a licensed professional counselor (LPC) who provides therapy in Littleton and in the Denver area. He specializes in individual...

Rebecca Ackerman LPC

- Offers sessions only online

You are not defined by the struggles that are keeping you stuck. Anxiety, depression, trauma, and other life experiences take ahold of...